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	<time pubdate datetime="2010-01-01T19:38:00+00:00">
		<sup>7:38<abbr>pm</abbr> • 2010</sup>
		<abbr title="January">Jan</abbr> 1
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<h1>Improved Title Case Function for PHP</h1>
	<strong>Update:</strong><br />
	Small words (“in”, “and” <abbr title="et cetera">&amp;c.</abbr>) now capitalise after em or en-dash.
	<strong>John Gruber</strong> originally <a href="http://daringfireball.net/2008/05/title_case">made available</a>
	his script to Title Case text, working around the fringe-cases.
	From this, a <a href="http://daringfireball.net/2008/08/title_case_update">number of ports</a> were made of the
	script of which particularly noteworthy <a href="http://individed.com/code/to-title-case/">David Gouch’s
	Javascript port</a> that was smaller, simpler and handled more
	<a href="http://individed.com/code/to-title-case/tests.html">fringe cases</a>.
	I’ve ported this to PHP and put it to use on this site. My version is based on David Gouch’s Javascript port,
	<del>unlike the <a href="http://files.nanovivid.com/wordpress/title-case.php">WordPress port</a> which is,
	frankly, crap</del>. Ironically, now there’s a
	<a href="http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/to-title-case/">WordPress port</a> that uses my port. The circle is
	complete! <samp>:P</samp>
	<br /><br />
	Code below.

<pre><code>//original Title Case script © John Gruber &lt;daringfireball.net&gt;
//javascript port © David Gouch &lt;individed.com&gt;
//PHP port of the above by Kroc Camen &lt;camendesign.com&gt;

function titleCase ($title) {
	//remove HTML, storing it for later
	//       HTML elements to ignore    | tags  | entities
	$regx = '/&lt;(code|var)[^&gt;]*&gt;.*?&lt;\/\1&gt;|&lt;[^&gt;]+&gt;|&amp;\S+;/';
	preg_match_all ($regx, $title, $html, PREG_OFFSET_CAPTURE);
	$title = preg_replace ($regx, '', $title);
	//find each word (including punctuation attached)
	preg_match_all ('/[\w\p{L}&amp;`\'‘’"“\.@:\/\{\(\[&lt;&gt;_]+-? */u', $title, $m1, PREG_OFFSET_CAPTURE);
	foreach ($m1[0] as &amp;$m2) {
		//shorthand these- "match" and "index"
		list ($m, $i) = $m2;
		//correct offsets for multi-byte characters (`PREG_OFFSET_CAPTURE` returns *byte*-offset)
		//we fix this by recounting the text before the offset using multi-byte aware `strlen`
		$i = mb_strlen (substr ($title, 0, $i), 'UTF-8');
		//find words that should always be lowercase…
		//(never on the first word, and never if preceded by a colon)
		$m = $i&gt;0 &amp;&amp; mb_substr ($title, max (0, $i-2), 1, 'UTF-8') !== ':' &amp;&amp; 
			!preg_match ('/[\x{2014}\x{2013}] ?/u', mb_substr ($title, max (0, $i-2), 2, 'UTF-8')) &amp;&amp; 
			 preg_match ('/^(a(nd?|s|t)?|b(ut|y)|en|for|i[fn]|o[fnr]|t(he|o)|vs?\.?|via)[ \-]/i', $m)
		?	//…and convert them to lowercase
			mb_strtolower ($m, 'UTF-8')
		//else:	brackets and other wrappers
		: (	preg_match ('/[\'"_{(\[‘“]/u', mb_substr ($title, max (0, $i-1), 3, 'UTF-8'))
		?	//convert first letter within wrapper to uppercase
			mb_substr ($m, 0, 1, 'UTF-8').
			mb_strtoupper (mb_substr ($m, 1, 1, 'UTF-8'), 'UTF-8').
			mb_substr ($m, 2, mb_strlen ($m, 'UTF-8')-2, 'UTF-8')
		//else:	do not uppercase these cases
		: (	preg_match ('/[\])}]/', mb_substr ($title, max (0, $i-1), 3, 'UTF-8')) ||
			preg_match ('/[A-Z]+|&amp;|\w+[._]\w+/u', mb_substr ($m, 1, mb_strlen ($m, 'UTF-8')-1, 'UTF-8'))
		?	$m
			//if all else fails, then no more fringe-cases; uppercase the word
		:	mb_strtoupper (mb_substr ($m, 0, 1, 'UTF-8'), 'UTF-8').
			mb_substr ($m, 1, mb_strlen ($m, 'UTF-8'), 'UTF-8')
		//resplice the title with the change (`substr_replace` is not multi-byte aware)
		$title = mb_substr ($title, 0, $i, 'UTF-8').$m.
			 mb_substr ($title, $i+mb_strlen ($m, 'UTF-8'), mb_strlen ($title, 'UTF-8'), 'UTF-8')
	//restore the HTML
	foreach ($html[0] as &amp;$tag) $title = substr_replace ($title, $tag[0], $tag[1], 0);
	return $title;

	Anything broken, please let me know.<br />
	Kind regards,
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